Calculate the appropriate metric of interest in `R`

(relative risk or odds ratio), then **write out a sentence** that describes your findings (i.e., *“the risk of…”* or *“the odds of…”*).

Imagine a study assessing the effect of alcohol use (_“heavy drinking_”) on liver disease. The researchers started with

100 liver disease patients, then identified150 people without the disease. In the study,75 liver disease patientsreported a history of heavy drinking, while only50 people without the diseasereported a history of heavy drinking.

```
odd_exposed <- 75 / (100 - 75)
odd_unexposed <- 50 / (150 - 50)
odds_ratio <- odd_exposed / odd_unexposed
```

Based on the odds ratio, we can conclude that people who had liver diease is 6 times more likely to be a heavy drinker, in comparison to someone who is not a heavy drinker.

Calculate the appropriate metric of interest in `R`

(relative risk or odds ratio), then **write out a sentence** that describes your findings (i.e., *“the risk of…”* or *“the odds of…”*).

Imagine a study assessing the effect of a vegetarian diet on heart disease. The researchers identified

100 healthy vegetariansand100 healthy meat eaters, and then followed them to see their health outcomes. In the study,10 vegetariansexperienced a heart attack, while20 meat eatersexperienced a heart attack.

```
risk_vegetarian <- 10/100
risk_meateater <- 20/100
relative_risk <- risk_meateater / risk_vegetarian
```

The risk of having a heart attack when you are a meat eater is 2 times higher than the risk for vegetarians.

Calculate the appropriate metric of interest in `R`

(relative risk or odds ratio), then **write out a sentence** that describes your findings (i.e., *“the risk of…”* or *“the odds of…”*).

Imagine a study assessing the effect of a bike commuting on experiencing a road traffic accident. The researchers identified

100 bike commutersand120 bus commuters, and then followed them to see their health outcomes. In the study,30 bike commutersexperienced a road traffic accident, while10 bus ridersexperienced a road traffic accident.

```
risk_bikers <- 30/100
risk_bussers <- 10/120
relative_risk <- risk_bikers / risk_bussers
```

The risk of getting into a traffic accident when you are biking is 3.6 times higher than the risk for the bussers.

`R`

(relative risk or odds ratio), then **write out a sentence** that describes your findings (i.e., *“the risk of…”* or *“the odds of…”*).

Imagine a study assessing the effect of drinking seltzer water on developing cavities. The researchers started with

300 people with cavities, then identified250 people without cavities. In the study,80 people with cavitiesreported being seltzer water, while70 people without cavitiesreported being seltzer drinkers.

```
odd_cavities <- 80 / (300 - 80)
odd_uncav <- 70 / (250 - 70)
odd_ratios <- odd_cavities / odd_uncav
```

Based on the odds ratio, we can conclude that the odds of getting cavities, given that you are a seltzer water drinker is 0.9350649 times higher than those who are not seltzer water drinker.