Source files: https://github.com/djlofland/DATA606_F2019/tree/master/Lab7

`## ── Attaching packages ────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── tidyverse 1.2.1 ──`

```
## ✔ ggplot2 3.2.1 ✔ purrr 0.3.2
## ✔ tibble 2.1.3 ✔ dplyr 0.8.3
## ✔ tidyr 0.8.3 ✔ stringr 1.4.0
## ✔ readr 1.3.1 ✔ forcats 0.4.0
```

```
## ── Conflicts ───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────── tidyverse_conflicts() ──
## ✖ dplyr::filter() masks stats::filter()
## ✖ dplyr::lag() masks stats::lag()
```

In 2004, the state of North Carolina released a large data set containing information on births recorded in this state. This data set is useful to researchers studying the relation between habits and practices of expectant mothers and the birth of their children. We will work with a random sample of observations from this data set.

Load the `nc`

data set into our workspace.

We have observations on 13 different variables, some categorical and some numerical. The meaning of each variable is as follows.

variable | description |
---|---|

`fage` |
father’s age in years. |

`mage` |
mother’s age in years. |

`mature` |
maturity status of mother. |

`weeks` |
length of pregnancy in weeks. |

`premie` |
whether the birth was classified as premature (premie) or full-term. |

`visits` |
number of hospital visits during pregnancy. |

`marital` |
whether mother is `married` or `not married` at birth. |

`gained` |
weight gained by mother during pregnancy in pounds. |

`weight` |
weight of the baby at birth in pounds. |

`lowbirthweight` |
whether baby was classified as low birthweight (`low` ) or not (`not low` ). |

`gender` |
gender of the baby, `female` or `male` . |

`habit` |
status of the mother as a `nonsmoker` or a `smoker` . |

`whitemom` |
whether mom is `white` or `not white` . |

- What are the cases in this data set? How many cases are there in our sample?

Each case in the dataset (row) is

a single birth event. There are1000 casesin the dataset.

As a first step in the analysis, we should consider summaries of the data. This can be done using the `summary`

command:

```
## fage mage mature weeks
## Min. :14.00 Min. :13 mature mom :133 Min. :20.00
## 1st Qu.:25.00 1st Qu.:22 younger mom:867 1st Qu.:37.00
## Median :30.00 Median :27 Median :39.00
## Mean :30.26 Mean :27 Mean :38.33
## 3rd Qu.:35.00 3rd Qu.:32 3rd Qu.:40.00
## Max. :55.00 Max. :50 Max. :45.00
## NA's :171 NA's :2
## premie visits marital gained
## full term:846 Min. : 0.0 married :386 Min. : 0.00
## premie :152 1st Qu.:10.0 not married:613 1st Qu.:20.00
## NA's : 2 Median :12.0 NA's : 1 Median :30.00
## Mean :12.1 Mean :30.33
## 3rd Qu.:15.0 3rd Qu.:38.00
## Max. :30.0 Max. :85.00
## NA's :9 NA's :27
## weight lowbirthweight gender habit
## Min. : 1.000 low :111 female:503 nonsmoker:873
## 1st Qu.: 6.380 not low:889 male :497 smoker :126
## Median : 7.310 NA's : 1
## Mean : 7.101
## 3rd Qu.: 8.060
## Max. :11.750
##
## whitemom
## not white:284
## white :714
## NA's : 2
##
##
##
##
```

As you review the variable summaries, consider which variables are categorical and which are numerical. For numerical variables, are there outliers? If you aren’t sure or want to take a closer look at the data, make a graph.

Categorical:

mature, premie, marital, lowbirthweight, gender, habit, whitemom

Numerical:

fage, mage, weeks, visits, gained, weight

fage as 2 high outliers, mage has 1 high outlier, weeks has a number of low outliers and 1 high outlier and has a clear right-skew, visits has outliers both above and below the interquartile range with a lisght left skew towards fewer visits, gained has a number of high outliers but those aside, looks fairly “normal”, and weight has a number of outliers.

Consider the possible relationship between a mother’s smoking habit and the weight of her baby. Plotting the data is a useful first step because it helps us quickly visualize trends, identify strong associations, and develop research questions.

- Make a side-by-side boxplot of
`habit`

and`weight`

. What does the plot highlight about the relationship between these two variables?

Nonsmoker baby weight has a much wider range of values wit more outliers above and below the IQR. Non-smokers baby weights appear to be slightly higher on average. Smokers’ baby weights appear to be slightly lower with a narrower range of values.

The box plots show how the medians of the two distributions compare, but we can also compare the means of the distributions using the following function to split the `weight`

variable into the `habit`

groups, then take the mean of each using the `mean`

function.

```
## nc$habit: nonsmoker
## [1] 7.144273
## --------------------------------------------------------
## nc$habit: smoker
## [1] 6.82873
```

There is an observed difference, but is this difference statistically significant? In order to answer this question we will conduct a hypothesis test.

- Check if the conditions necessary for inference are satisfied. Note that you will need to obtain sample sizes to check the conditions. You can compute the group size using the same
`by`

command above but replacing`mean`

with`length`

.

```
## nc$habit: nonsmoker
## [1] 873
## --------------------------------------------------------
## nc$habit: smoker
## [1] 126
```

Conditions: cases were randomly sampled. We have > 10 cases in each group, smoker and nonsmoker

- Write the hypotheses for testing if the average weights of babies born to smoking and non-smoking mothers are different.

\(H_{0}\): There is

no differencebetween baby weights based on mom smoking habit

\(H_{A}\): There

isas differnce between the baby weights of moms who smoke vs those who don’t

Next, we introduce a new function, `inference`

, that we will use for conducting hypothesis tests and constructing confidence intervals.

```
inference(y = nc$weight, x = nc$habit, est = "mean", type = "ht", null = 0,
alternative = "twosided", method = "theoretical")
```

```
## Response variable: numerical, Explanatory variable: categorical
## Difference between two means
## Summary statistics:
## n_nonsmoker = 873, mean_nonsmoker = 7.1443, sd_nonsmoker = 1.5187
## n_smoker = 126, mean_smoker = 6.8287, sd_smoker = 1.3862
```

```
## Observed difference between means (nonsmoker-smoker) = 0.3155
##
## H0: mu_nonsmoker - mu_smoker = 0
## HA: mu_nonsmoker - mu_smoker != 0
## Standard error = 0.134
## Test statistic: Z = 2.359
## p-value = 0.0184
```