# Programming with dplyr

Programming with dplyr requires a bit of special knowledge because most dplyr verbs are not normal functions. They are quoting functions. In this vignette you will learn about quoting functions, what challenges they pose for programming, and how tidy evaluation solves those problems.

## Introduction

### Regular functions versus quoting functions

R functions can be categorised in two broad categories: regular functions and quoting functions. These functions differ in the way they get their arguments. Regular functions only see values. It does not matter what the expression supplied as argument is or which variables it involves. The value is computed following the standard rules of evaluation 1. The fundamental regular function is identity(), it returns the value of its argument. Because only the value matters, all of these statements are completely equivalent:

identity(6)
#> [1] 6

identity(2 * 3)
#> [1] 6

a <- 2
b <- 3
identity(a * b)
#> [1] 6

On the other hand, a quoting function sees the expression typed as argument rather than the value of this expression. The expression might be evaluated a bit later or might not be evaluated at all. The fundamental quoting function is quote(), it returns the expression ot its argument:

quote(6)
#> [1] 6

quote(2 * 3)
#> 2 * 3

quote(a * b)
#> a * b

In fact the action of quoting is something that all programmers are familiar with because this is they create strings. " is a quoting operator. It is a signal that the supplied characters are not code but text. As an R programmer, you are also probably familiar with the formula operator ~. This quoting operator returns one or two quoted expressions. Thus the three following expressions are doing something similar, they are quoting their input:

"a * b"
#> [1] "a * b"

~a * b
#> ~a * b

quote(a * b)
#> a * b

The first statement returns a quoted string and the other two return quoted code in a formula or as a bare expression.

### Changing the context of evaluation

A quoted expression can be evaluated using the function eval(). Let’s quote an expression that represents the subset of lowercase letters from 1 to 5, and evaluate this:

x <- quote(letters[1:5])

x
#> letters[1:5]

eval(x)
#> [1] "a" "b" "c" "d" "e"

Of course this is not very impressive, you could just type the expression normally to get this value. But one of R’s most important feature is that you can change the context of evaluation to obtain different results. A context, also called environment, is basically a set that links symbols to values. The namespaces of packages are such context. For instance, in the context of the base namespace, the symbol letters is given the value of a character vector of lowercase letters. However it could mean something different in another context. We could create a context where letters represent the uppercase letters in reverse order! Evaluating a quoted expression in such a context could return a completely different result:

context <- list(letters = rev(LETTERS))

x
#> letters[1:5]

eval(x, context)
#> [1] "Z" "Y" "X" "W" "V"

Interestingly, data frames can be used as evaluation contexts. In a data frame context, the column names represent vectors so that you can refer to those columns in an expression:

data1 <- tibble(mass = c(70, 80, 90), height = 1.6, 1.7, 1.8)
data2 <- tibble(mass = c(75, 85, 95), height = 1.5, 1.7, 1.9)

bmi_expr <- quote(mass / height^2)

eval(bmi_expr, data1)
#> [1] 27.3 31.2 35.2

eval(bmi_expr, data2)
#> [1] 33.3 37.8 42.2

In the last snippet we are creating an expression with quote() and we evaluate it manually with eval(). However quoting functions typically perform the quoting and the evaluation for you behind the scene:

with(data1, mass / height^2)
#> [1] 27.3 31.2 35.2

with(data2, mass / height^2)
#> [1] 33.3 37.8 42.2

For this reason quoting functions usually take a data frame as input in addition to user expressions so they can be evaluated in the context of the data. This is a powerful feature that gives R its identity as a data-oriented programming language. Quoting functions are everywhere in R:

• with(data, expr) evaluates expr in the context of data.

• lm(formula, data) creates a design matrix with predictors evaluated in the context of data.

• mutate(data, new = expr) creates a new column from an expression evaluated in the context of data.

• ggplot(data, aes(expr)) defines the x aesthetic as the value of expr evaluated in the context of data.

In the context of the dplyr interface, quoting the arguments has two benefits:

• Operations on data frames can be expressed succinctly because you don’t need to repeat the name of the data frame. For example, you can write filter(df, x == 1, y == 2, z == 3) instead of df[df$x == 1 & df$y ==2 & df$z == 3, ]. • dplyr can choose to compute results in a different way to base R. This is important for database backends because dplyr itself doesn’t do any work, but instead generates the SQL that tells the database what to do. Unfortunately the benefits of quoting functions do not come for free. While they simplify direct inputs, they make it harder to program the inputs. Quoting works for you when you use dplyr but works against you when your functions use dplyr. ### Varying quoted inputs The issue of referential transparency to do with the difficulty of passing contextual variables in order to vary the inputs of quoting functions. When you pass variables to quoting functions they get quoted along with the rest of the expression. To see the problem more clearly, let’s define a simple quoting function 2 that pastes its inputs as a string: cement <- function(..., .sep = " ") { strings <- map(exprs(...), as_string) paste(strings, collapse = .sep) } Compared to the regular function paste(), the quoting function cement() saves a bit of typing because it performs the string-quoting automatically: paste("it", "is", "rainy") #> [1] "it is rainy" cement(it, is, rainy) #> [1] "it is rainy" Now what if we wanted to store the weather adjective in a variable? paste() has no issue on that front because it gets the value of the argument rather than its expression. On the other hand if we pass a variable to cement(), it would be quoted just like the other inputs and cement() would never get to see its contents: x <- "shiny" paste("it", "is", x) #> [1] "it is shiny" cement(it, is, x) #> [1] "it is x" The solution to this problem is a special syntax that signals the quoting function that part of the argument is to be unquoted, i.e., evaluated right away. The ability to mix quoting and evaluation is called quasiquotation and is the main tidy eval feature. ## Quasiquotation Put simply, quasi-quotation enables one to introduce symbols that stand for a linguistic expression in a given instance and are used as that linguistic expression in a different instance. — Willard van Orman Quine As we have seen, automatic quoting makes R and dplyr very convenient for interactive use but makes it difficult to refer to variable inputs. The solution to this problem is quasiquotation, which allows you to evaluate directly inside an expression that is otherwise quoted. Quasiquotation was coined by Willard van Orman Quine in the 1940s, and was adopted for programming by the LISP community in the 1970s. Quasiquotation is available (or will soon be) in all quoting functions of the tidyverse thanks to the tidy evaluation framework. ### The bang! bang! operator The tidy eval syntax for unquoting is !!. Anything supplied to to this operator is evaluated right away and the result is substituted in place. Let’s see !! in action in our cement() function: x <- "shiny" cement(it, is, !! x) #> [1] "it is shiny" Even though the arguments are quoted, !! x signals that x should be evaluated right away. From cement() perspective, it’s as if the user had typed "shiny" instead of !! x. We have seen above that the fundamental quoting function in base R is quote(). In the tidyverse, it is expr(). All it does is to quote its argument with quasiquotation support and returns it right away: expr(x) #> x expr(!! x) #> [1] "shiny" expr() is especially useful for debugging quasiquotation. You can wrap it around any expression in which you use !! to examine the effect of unquoting. Let’s try it with cement(): expr(cement(it, is, !! x)) #> cement(it, is, "shiny") This technique is essential to work your way around to mastering tidy eval. ### Creating symbols Now that we are armed with quasiquotation, let’s try to program with the dplyr verb mutate(). We’ll take a BMI computation as running example. # Rescale height starwars <- mutate(starwars, height = height / 100) transmute(starwars, bmi = mass / height^2) #> # A tibble: 87 x 1 #> bmi #> <dbl> #> 1 26.0 #> 2 26.9 #> 3 34.7 #> 4 33.3 #> # ... with 83 more rows Let’s say we want to vary the height input. A first intuition might be to store the column name in a variable and unquote it. But we get an error: x <- "height" transmute(starwars, bmi = mass / (!! x)^2) #> Error in mutate_impl(.data, dots): Evaluation error: non-numeric argument to binary operator. The error message indicates a type error. A binary operator expected a numeric input but got something else. The error becomes clear if we use expr() to debug the unquoting: expr(transmute(starwars, bmi = mass / (!! x)^2)) #> transmute(starwars, bmi = mass/("height")^2) We are unquoting a string and that’s exactly what transmute() uses to evaluate the BMI. This can’t work! We need to unquote something that looks like code instead of a string. What we are looking for is a symbol. A symbol is a string that references an object in a context. Symbols are the meat of R code. In foo(bar), foo is a symbol that references a function and bar is a symbol that references some object. There are two ways of creating symbolic R code objects: by quotation or by construction. We already know how to create symbols by quoting. However that does not help us much because we face the same issue again, namely that the quoted symbol is a constant that can’t be varied: quote(height) #> height expr(height) #> height The other way is to build it out of a string using the constructor sym(). Constructors are regular functions and can be programmed with variables: sym("height") #> height x <- "height" sym(x) #> height Let’s build a symbol and try to unquote it in the transmute expression. Using expr() to examine the effect of unquoting, things are looking good: x <- sym("height") expr(transmute(starwars, bmi = mass / (!! x)^2)) #> transmute(starwars, bmi = mass/(height)^2) And indeed it now works! transmute(starwars, bmi = mass / (!! x)^2) #> # A tibble: 87 x 1 #> bmi #> <dbl> #> 1 26.0 #> 2 26.9 #> 3 34.7 #> 4 33.3 #> # ... with 83 more rows ## Creating a wrapper around a dplyr pipeline Quasiquotation is all we need to write our first wrapper function around a dplyr pipeline. The goal is to write reliable functions that reduce duplication in our data analysis code. Let’s say that we often take a grouped average using dplyr and our scripts are littered with little pipelines that look like this: starwars %>% group_by(species) %>% summarise(avg = mean(height)) #> # A tibble: 38 x 2 #> species avg #> <chr> <dbl> #> 1 Aleena 0.79 #> 2 Besalisk 1.98 #> 3 Cerean 1.98 #> 4 Chagrian 1.96 #> # ... with 34 more rows It would be a good idea to extract this logic into a function. It would reduce the risk of writing a typo and would make our code more concise as well as clearer if we choose a good name for this function. We know from the previous sections that this kind of naive wrapper will not work. The variable names will be automatically quoted. The column names they contain will be at best ignored (in the example below group_by() looks for a column named group) or at worst misused (summarise() would try to take the average of the string "height"): mean_by <- function(data, var, group) { data %>% group_by(group) %>% summarise(avg = mean(var)) } mean_by(starwars, "species", "height") #> Error in grouped_df_impl(data, unname(vars), drop): Column group is unknown Our wrapper simply needs to construct symbols from its inputs and unquote them in the pipeline: mean_by <- function(data, var, group) { var <- sym(var) group <- sym(group) data %>% group_by(!! group) %>% summarise(avg = mean(!! var)) } mean_by(starwars, "height", "species") #> # A tibble: 38 x 2 #> species avg #> <chr> <dbl> #> 1 Aleena 0.79 #> 2 Besalisk 1.98 #> 3 Cerean 1.98 #> 4 Chagrian 1.96 #> # ... with 34 more rows mean_by(starwars, "mass", "eye_color") #> # A tibble: 15 x 2 #> eye_color avg #> <chr> <dbl> #> 1 black NA #> 2 blue NA #> 3 blue-gray 77 #> 4 brown NA #> # ... with 11 more rows ### Creating your own quoting functions The wrapper that we just created is a regular function. It takes strings and doesn’t quote any of its inputs. This has the advantage that it is easy to program with but the inconvenient that it doesn’t integrate well with the rest of the tidyverse verbs. Fortunately it is easy to transform the wrapper into a quoting function. First we need to choose which of our wrapper arguments should be quoted. Given the friction that quotation causes for programming, it is best to only quote arguments when absolutely necessary, i.e. when it makes sense to refer to data frames columns. In dplyr, the argument that takes a data frame (which is always the first argument in order to be compatible with pipes) is never quoted. We’ll apply the same logic to our wrapper and only quote the group and var arguments. Tidy eval provides two functions to quote an argument supplied by the caller of a function. Both of those enable quasiquotation: • enexpr() which returns a raw expression. • enquo() which returns an expression wrapped in a quosure. Let’s first try enexpr() in a simple function that does nothing but capture its argument and return it right away: quoting <- function(x) enexpr(x) x <- sym("foo") quoting(x) #> x quoting(!! x) #> foo We have in fact just reinvented expr()! Indeed expr() is a simple wrapper around enexpr(): dplyr::expr #> function (expr) #> { #> enexpr(expr) #> } #> <bytecode: 0x7fac3b7f6a38> #> <environment: namespace:rlang> In the same vein, quo() is a wrapper around enquo(). All it does is to capture the expression of its argument, store it in a quosure, and return it as is: dplyr::quo #> function (expr) #> { #> enquo(expr) #> } #> <bytecode: 0x7fac3e82b240> #> <environment: namespace:rlang> quo(x) #> <quosure: global> #> ~x quo(!! x) #> <quosure: global> #> ~foo A quosure is like a raw expression except that it is evaluated in the original context of its capture. It combines an expression (a quote) and a context (an enclosure) in a single object. We’ll see below why it is important to keep track of the original context of arguments. For now, let’s just use it in our pipeline wrapper to transform it into a quoting function. As a reminder here is the current definition of our function: mean_by <- function(data, var, group) { var <- sym(var) group <- sym(group) data %>% group_by(!! group) %>% summarise(avg = mean(!! var)) } All we need to do is to replace the sym() constructor by enquo(): mean_by <- function(data, var, group) { var <- enquo(var) group <- enquo(group) data %>% group_by(!! group) %>% summarise(avg = mean(!! var)) } The wrapper now automatically quotes its arguments. This has several implications: • First the user no longer has to supply quoted strings: mean_by(starwars, height, species) #> # A tibble: 38 x 2 #> species avg #> <chr> <dbl> #> 1 Aleena 0.79 #> 2 Besalisk 1.98 #> 3 Cerean 1.98 #> 4 Chagrian 1.96 #> # ... with 34 more rows • Secondly, while sym() assumed that the supplied arguments were symbols, enquo() captures arbitrary expressions. This is a good fit for our wrapper because both group_by() and summarise() accept complex expressions: mean_by(starwars, height * 100, as.factor(species)) #> # A tibble: 38 x 2 #> as.factor(species) avg #> <fctr> <dbl> #> 1 Aleena 79 #> 2 Besalisk 198 #> 3 Cerean 198 #> 4 Chagrian 196 #> # ... with 34 more rows • Since our function now quotes its arguments, it is no longer programmable in the usual way. If another function passes variables to mean_by(), it needs to use quasiquotation itself. A typical composition of quoting functions thus looks like a chain of quoted and unquoted arguments: mean_by_species <- function(data, var) { var <- enquo(var) mean_by(data, !! var, species) } mean_by_species(starwars, height) #> # A tibble: 38 x 2 #> species avg #> <chr> <dbl> #> 1 Aleena 0.79 #> 2 Besalisk 1.98 #> 3 Cerean 1.98 #> 4 Chagrian 1.96 #> # ... with 34 more rows Thanks to enquo() now have a wrapper function that quotes its inputs and interacts with dplyr verbs via quasiquotation. It is getting pretty close to a real tidyverse-like user interface! However we could still improve a few things, like the automatic labelling of column names which could be better. It would also be nice if the wrapper could accept a variable number of arguments like other dplyr or tidyr verbs. We’ll address the latter issue first. ### Accepting multiple arguments Whether our wrapper should take multiple grouping variables or multiple variables to average is a design decision that could go either way depending on your needs. In this tutorial we’ll allow multiple grouping variables. It is relatively easy to write R functions that accept an unspecified number of arguments. The function just takes ... as argument. In the body of the function ... are then forwarded to another variadic function that is in charge of materialising the arguments. The end point is typically the list function: variadic <- function(...) list(...) variadic("foo", "bar") #> [[1]] #> [1] "foo" #> #> [[2]] #> [1] "bar" Passing on arguments through dots to quoting functions is very easy. Unlike named arguments which need to be repeatedly quoted and unquoted, the ... object can just be passed along: mean_by <- function(data, var, ...) { var <- enquo(var) data %>% group_by(...) %>% summarise(avg = mean(!! var)) } Your users can now create grouped averages for any combination of groups! mean_by(starwars, height, species, eye_color) #> # A tibble: 51 x 3 #> # Groups: species [?] #> species eye_color avg #> <chr> <chr> <dbl> #> 1 Aleena unknown 0.79 #> 2 Besalisk yellow 1.98 #> 3 Cerean yellow 1.98 #> 4 Chagrian blue 1.96 #> # ... with 47 more rows You can learn about more advanced ways of dealing with multiple arguments with exprs(), quos() and syms() in the section on variadic quasiquotation below. ### Labelling inputs dplyr functions try their best to provide useful column names for new columns. This is an area where our wrapper could use some improvement: names(mean_by(starwars, height, as.factor(species))) #> [1] "as.factor(species)" "avg" First note that the issue is in fact already solved for the grouping variables. That’s a benefit from taking arguments with ..., they accept optional names: mean_by(starwars, height, species_fct = as.factor(species)) #> # A tibble: 38 x 2 #> species_fct avg #> <fctr> <dbl> #> 1 Aleena 0.79 #> 2 Besalisk 1.98 #> 3 Cerean 1.98 #> 4 Chagrian 1.96 #> # ... with 34 more rows However for named arguments we need to do a bit more work. We’ll make use of two tidy eval features: • quo_name() which is a helper that transforms an arbitrary expression (including quosures) to a name that is suitable for data frames: wrapper <- function(x) { x <- enquo(x) quo_name(x) } wrapper(foo) #> [1] "foo" wrapper(foo(bar, baz())) #> [1] "foo(bar, baz())" • The := operator. It makes it possible to unquote on the left-hand side of an argument. Since the LHS of = is automatically quoted, it makes sense to have quasiquotation for argument names: x <- "Column Name" summarise(starwars, !! x := n()) #> # A tibble: 1 x 1 #> Column Name #> <int> #> 1 87 We can give a nice default name to the column of averages by transforming the captured variable to a name and pasting a prefix at its front: mean_by <- function(data, var, ...) { var <- enquo(var) name <- quo_name(var) name <- paste0("avg_", name) data %>% group_by(...) %>% summarise(!! name := mean(!! var)) } We get a good name that reflects the user input, even when the argument is a complex expression: mean_by(starwars, height, species) #> # A tibble: 38 x 2 #> species avg_height #> <chr> <dbl> #> 1 Aleena 0.79 #> 2 Besalisk 1.98 #> 3 Cerean 1.98 #> 4 Chagrian 1.96 #> # ... with 34 more rows mean_by(starwars, identity(height), species) #> # A tibble: 38 x 2 #> species avg_identity(height) #> <chr> <dbl> #> 1 Aleena 0.79 #> 2 Besalisk 1.98 #> 3 Cerean 1.98 #> 4 Chagrian 1.96 #> # ... with 34 more rows Overall the most flexible interface is ... since they let the user specify custom names. But what if we want to add a prefix to the grouping variables as well? Then we can’t just pass the ... variable down to group_by(), we have to capture all the variables in the dots and modify their names before passing them on. This calls for more advanced means of working with multiple arguments. ### Capturing and modifying arguments in ... Up until now, we have captured named arguments with enquo(), we have forwarded variadic arguments by passing ... to tidy eval functions, but we have yet to actually capture those arguments contained in .... Getting a hold on the expressions supplied as ... arguments is necessary in order to make modifications such as changing the argument names. As we have seen arguments transiting through dots need to be materialised with endpoint functions such as c() or list(). Tidy eval provides two variadic endpoints for dots: exprs() and quos(). These functions quote all of their inputs and return them in a list of expressions or quosures: exprs(foo, bar) #> [[1]] #> foo #> #> [[2]] #> bar quos(baz, bam) #> [[1]] #> <quosure: global> #> ~baz #> #> [[2]] #> <quosure: global> #> ~bam #> #> attr(,"class") #> [1] "quosures" Thanks to the magic of ... forwarding, exprs() and quos() will capture all arguments passed through dots: quoting <- function(...) { exprs(foo, ...) } quoting(bar(baz)) #> [[1]] #> foo #> #> [[2]] #> bar(baz) We’ll first experiment with a simple group_by() wrapper before applying our new knowledge to the mean_by() wrapper. This wrapper will prefix all grouping variables with grp_. To achieve there are two problems to solve: modifying the names, and forwarding the list of captured arguments to group_by() once we are done changing the names. Let’s start this function with a bare skeleton. It will take a data frame, a prefix for the group names, and an undefined number of grouping arguments: prefixed_group_by <- function(data, prefix, ...) { groups <- quos(...) groups } groups <- prefixed_group_by(starwars, "grp_", as.factor(species), color = eye_color) groups #> [[1]] #> <quosure: global> #> ~as.factor(species) #> #>$color
#> <quosure: global>
#> ~eye_color
#>
#> attr(,"class")
#> [1] "quosures"

names(groups)
#> [1] ""      "color"

We have supplied two arguments as grouping variable. The first is an unnamed complex expression, the second is a named symbol. The first thing to do is to give a default name to arguments. One way to obtain default names would be to map quo_name() over the relevant elements but there is an easier way. quos() will do it for you if you switch on the .named argument:

quos <- quos(foo(bar), baz = foo(), .named = TRUE)
names(quos)
#> [1] "foo(bar)" "baz"

We are now in a good position for adding a prefix to the names of captured arguments:

prefixed_group_by <- function(data, prefix, ...) {
groups <- quos(..., .named = TRUE)
names(groups) <- paste0(prefix, names(groups))
groups
}

groups <- prefixed_group_by(starwars, "grp_", as.factor(species), color = eye_color)
names(groups)
#> [1] "grp_as.factor(species)" "grp_color"

Alright! We only have one last problem to solve. We need a way to forward this list of arguments to group_by(). Unquoting the list with !! is not helpful here because group_by() expects separate arguments and wouldn’t know what to do with a whole list. This leads us to !!!, one of the most handy features of tidy eval.

### Unquote-splicing arguments with !!!

The unquote-splicing operator !!! is a variant of simple unquoting. Just like !!, it evaluates its right-hand side right away. The difference is in the way it substitutes the result in the surrounding call:

• !! substitutes in place:

expr(call(!! 1:5))
#> call(1:5)
• !!! takes a vector and substitutes all its elements in the call:

expr(call(!!! 1:5))
#> call(1L, 2L, 3L, 4L, 5L)

This is exactly what we need to forward a list of captured arguments to group_by()!

prefixed_group_by <- function(data, prefix, ...) {
groups <- quos(..., .named = TRUE)
names(groups) <- paste0(prefix, names(groups))

group_by(data, !!! groups)
}

prefixed_group_by(starwars, "grp_", as.factor(species), color = eye_color)
#> # A tibble: 87 x 15
#> # Groups:   grp_as.factor(species), grp_color [51]
#>             name height  mass hair_color  skin_color eye_color birth_year
#>            <chr>  <dbl> <dbl>      <chr>       <chr>     <chr>      <dbl>
#> 1 Luke Skywalker   1.72    77      blond        fair      blue       19.0
#> 2          C-3PO   1.67    75       <NA>        gold    yellow      112.0
#> 3          R2-D2   0.96    32       <NA> white, blue       red       33.0
#> 4    Darth Vader   2.02   136       none       white    yellow       41.9
#> # ... with 83 more rows, and 8 more variables: gender <chr>,
#> #   homeworld <chr>, species <chr>, films <list>, vehicles <list>,
#> #   starships <list>, grp_as.factor(species) <fctr>, grp_color <chr>

Modifying mean_by() to automatically prefix the grouping factors is now child’s play:

mean_by <- function(data, var, ...) {
var <- enquo(var)

name <- quo_name(var)
name <- paste0("avg_", name)

data %>%
prefixed_group_by("grp_", ...) %>%
summarise(!! name := mean(!! var))
}

mean_by(starwars, height, species, eye = eye_color)
#> # A tibble: 51 x 3
#> # Groups:   grp_species [?]
#>   grp_species grp_eye avg_height
#>         <chr>   <chr>      <dbl>
#> 1      Aleena unknown       0.79
#> 2    Besalisk  yellow       1.98
#> 3      Cerean  yellow       1.98
#> 4    Chagrian    blue       1.96
#> # ... with 47 more rows

### Wrapping it up

In order to write our little wrapper, we have learned to:

• Quote R code with quote() and expr() and construct symbols with sym().

• Capture named arguments with enquo() and ... arguments with quos().

• Unquote single arguments with !! and multiple arguments with !!!.

• Use := to enable !! on the left-hand side of a named argument.

• Debug the unquoting by wrapping expr() around an expression.

• Use quo_name() and quos(.named = TRUE) to provide default names to captured arguments.

This set of techniques will get you a long way as quasiquotation is really the meat of programming with tidy eval. enquo() and quos() return quosures that are more reliable than bare expressions but you don’t have to understand how quosures work or why they are needed to effectively use tidy eval.

When you feel ready, you can learn about the concept of quosures. It will improve your understanding of R programming and you will gain knowledge that can be applied to R functions. Quosures and closures (the technical name of R functions) have a lot in common!

## Where do quoting verbs find things?

### Quosures versus raw expressions

1. This is why regular functions are said to use standard evaluation unlike quoting functions which use non-standard evaluation (NSE).

2. As we will see later on exprs() captures the expressions of its inputs. Passing ... to exprs() returns a list of quoted arguments forwarded through dots.