TABLE 1. Characteristics of studies addressing the prevalence of H. pylori infection in Japanese
StudyID Reference Location Urban or rural Data collection period Study design Participants Setting Adults or Children Sampling method N Sex Mean Age [range] Response rate Specimen type Measurement kit Antigen derived from domestic or foreign strains Tested (n) Positive (n) Prevalence %
1 Fukao et al. 1993 Akita, Iwate, Miyagi, Okinawa NA NA Cross-sectional Healthy blood donors Community Children&adult NOT random sampling 1815 M/F [16-64] NA Serum ELISA kit (QUIDEL Corp., San Diego) Foreign 1815 949 53.3
2 Replogle et al. 1996 Tokyo Urban 1980-1993 Cross-sectional Patients screened for Hepatitis B virus at Tokyo University Hospital Clinical- or Hospital-based Children&adult NOT random sampling 1494 M/F [0-94] NA Serum NA NA 1207 470 38.9
3 Kumagai et al. 1998 South Kiso Rural 19861994 Cross-sectional survey within a cohort study Participants of a cohort study General population Children&adult NOT random sampling 641549 M/F [6-80] NA Serum GAP-IgG test (Biomerica, Newport Beach, CA) Foreign 641
549
510
370
79.6
67.4
4 Youn et al. 1998 Fukuoka Urban 1993 Cross-sectional Patients without gastrointestinal symptoms Clinical- or Hospital-based Children&adult NOT random sampling 580 M/F [2-6][7-19][20-] NA Serum Immunoblot assay NA 100
260
100
20
108
NA
20
40
>75
5 Kikuchi et al, 1998 Honshu Urban/rural 1996 Cross-sectional Public service workers Community Adults NOT random sampling 5000 M/F NA [19-69] 87.2% Serum Pilika Plate G HelicobacterII (Biomerica Ltd., Newport Beach, CA) Foreign 4361 1330 30.5
6 Fujisawa et al, 1999 Seven prefectures (Nagano, Niigata, Gunma,Toyama, Shizuoka, Mie, and Miyagi) in the central part of Japan. Urban/rural 197419841994 Cross-sectional Participants in a health screening program Community Children&adult Random sampling from serum reference bank 1015 M/F Median 35.6 [0-89] NA Serum GAP-IgG test (Biomerica, Newport Beach, CA) Foreign 1015 426 42.0
7 Yang et al. 1999 NA NA 1996 Cross-sectional Employees of a manufacturing plant Community Adult NOT random sampling 598 M/F [20-59] NA Serum GAP-IgG test (Biomerica, Newport Beach, CA) Foreign 545 216 39.6
8 Shibata et al. 2000 Farm village in Kyushu Rural 1997 Cross-sectional Residents General population Adult NOT random sampling 1207 M/F [30-64] 71% Serum GAP-IgG, Biomerica, USA Foreign 636 310 48.7
9 Ogihara et al, 2000 Tokyo Urban 1989-1990 Cross-sectional Employees of small and medium-sized textile companies Community Adults NOT random sampling 9500 M/F NA[39-65+] 70% Serum Pilika Plate G HelicobacterII (Biomerica Ltd, Newport, USA) Foreign 8837 4268 48.3
10 Yamagata et al, 2000 Hisayama, Kyusyu Rural 1988 Cohort study Participants of a cohort study General population Adults NOT random sampling 2742 M/F 57 in men59 in women [40-80+] NA Serum HM-CAP (Enteric Products Inc, Westbury, NY) Foreign 2602 1721 66.1
11 Kurosawa et al, 2000 Komoro, Nagano Rural 1995-1996 Cross-sectional Elementary/junior high School students Community Children NOT random sampling 610 M/F 6 and 14 years NA Saliva HELISAI kit Foreign 610 83 13.6
12 Yamaji et al. 2001 Kamogawa, Chiba Urban 1996-1997 Cross-sectional Individuals attending a health screening program Community Adult NOT random sampling 6489 M/F 48.1 [NA] NA Serum GAP-IgG test (Biomerica, Newport Beach, CA) Foreign 5732 2695 47.0
13 Yamashita et al. 2001 Kyusyu Urban/rural 1995-1996 Cross-sectional Healthy Children in an out-patient clinic Clinical- or Hospital-based Children NOT random sampling 336 M/F NA [0-19] NA Serum HEL-p-test; AMRAD,Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Foreign 336 59 17.5
14 Shibata et al. 2002 Fukuoka Rural 1993 Cross-sectional Residents attending a health screening program General population Adult NOT random sampling 2347 M/F NA [30-79] 45% Serum HM-CAP, EPI Inc., USA Foreign 954 703 73.7
15 Kinjo et al. 2002 Osaka Urban 1999-2000 Case-control study Control subjects (representative of general population) General population Adults NOT random sampling 967 M/F 58.9 NA Serum HM-CAP,Kyowa Medex, Tokyo, Japan Foreign 967 409 42.3
16 Fukuda et al. 2003 NA NA 2003 Cross-sectional Asymptomatic children General population Children NOT random sampling 300 M/F 8.0 NA Serum HEL-p-test; AMRAD,Melbourne, Victoria, Australia Foreign 300 37 12.3
17 Matsuhisa et al. 2003 Tokyo Urban 1994-2000 Cross-sectional Patients with present or past abdominal complaints Clinical- or Hospital-based Adult NOT random sampling 175 M/F 47.3 [NA] NA Biopsy Hematoxylin-cosin staining, improved Toluidine-blue staining and H. pylor-specific antibody immune staining (Dako, Denmark) NA 175 120 68.6
18 Kato et al. 2003 Hachinohe, Sendai, Ohmiya, Wakayama, Kurume Urban NA Cross-sectional Healthy Children Clinical- or Hospital-based Children NOT random sampling 454 M/F 6.1[0-15] NA Serum HM-CAP and PP-CAP, En-teric Products, New York, NY, USA Foreign 454 55 12.2
19 Kato et al. 2004 21 centers across Japan Urban/rural NA Cross-sectional Individuals with uppergastrointestinal symptoms Clinical- or Hospital-based Adults NOT random sampling 6578 M/F [21-71+] NA Serum HM-CAP, Enteric ProductsIncorporated, Stony Brook, NY, USA or a GAP lgG kit (Bio-Rad, Richmond, CA, USA). Foreign 6578 3300 50.2
20 Nobuta et al. 2004 Niigata, Okinawa NA 1995-1996 Cross-sectional Asymptomatic individuals attending a health screening program Community Adult NOT random sampling 250209 M/F 40.7 in Niigata39.1 in Okinawa NA Serum HM-CAP NA 250
209
125
88
50.0
41.1
21 Kikuchi et al, 2005 45 areas across Japan Urban/rural 1988-1990 Cross-sectional within a cohort study Residents in various areas General population Adults NOT random sampling 635 M/F [40-79] NA Serum J-HM-CAP, Kyowa Medex Co. Ltd., Tokyo Domestic 633 443 70.0
22 Kawade et al. 2005 NA NA 1999-2001 Cross-sectional Patients with dyspepsia Clinical- or Hospital-based Adults NOT random sampling 644 M/F 82.7 [65-107] NA Serum NA NA 644 337 52.3
23 Shimatani et al. 2005 33 of 47 prefectures NA 1997-2003 Cross-sectional University students attending a health check-up program General population Adult NOT random sampling 530 M/F 23.7 [NA] NA Biopsy specimens& serum Rapid urease test (CLO test, Ballard Medical Products, Utah, USA), and HM-CAP Enteric Products, Westbury, NY, USA) Foreign 530 87 16.4
24 Sasazuki et al. 2006 9 Public Health Center areas Across Japan Urban/rural 1990-1992 Cross-sectional within a cohort study Participants of a cohort study General population Adults NOT random sampling 511 M/F 57.4 NA Serum E Plate "Eiken" H. pyloriAntibody, Eiken Kagaku Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan Domestic 511 383 74.9
25 Fujimoto et al. 2007 Ishigaki city, Kasuya town, Honshino village Urban/rural 1993, 2002 Cross-sectional Residents attending a health screening program General population Adult NOT random sampling 3819 M/F [20-70+] NA Serum ELISA (JHM-CAP, Kyowa Medix Co.,Tokyo, Japan) Domestic 3819 2116 55.4
26 Shiotani et al. 2008 Wakayama NA 2005-2006 Cross-sectional University students Community Adult Random sampling 777 M/F 19.5 [18-25] NA Serum E Plate test (Eiken Kagaku) Domestic 777 114 14.7
27 Naito et al. 2008 Tokyo Urban 2002-2003 Cross-sectional Children from kindergarten or elementary school attending a health screening program Community Children NOT random sampling 452 M/F 4 years old
7 years old
10 years old
NA Urine URINELISA H.pylori kit (Otsuka Pharmaceuticals, Tokyo) Domestic 150
150
149
149
153
153
8
10
7
6
6
7
5.3
6.7
4.7
4.0
4.0
4.6
28 Mizuno et al. 2010 Kyoto Rural 1987 Cross-sectional within a cohort study Residents General population Adult NOT random sampling 2589 M/F [35-75+] NA Serum Pilika Plate G HelicobacterII (Biomerica Ltd., Newport Beach, CA) Foreign 2859 2147 75.1
29 Nakajima et al. 2010 Shiga Urban/rural 1998, 2005 Cross-sectional Individuals attending a health screening program Community Adults NOT random sampling 384 M/F [20-79] NA Serum E-plate (Eiken Chemical, Tokyo, Japan) Domestic 384 192 50.0
30 Kawai et al. 2010 Tokyo Urban 2003-2004 Cross-sectional Patients undergoing routine health check-up Clinic- or Hospital-based Adult NOT random sampling 418 M/F 39.2 [22-58] NA Serum E-plate (Eiken Chemical, Tokyo, Japan) Domestic 418 141 33.7
31 Nakao et al. 2011 Aichi Urban 2001-2005 Case-control study All first-visit outpatients at Aichi Cancer Center Clinic- or Hospital-based Adult NOT random sampling 1465 M/F [20-79] NA Serum E-plate (Eiken Chemical, Tokyo, Japan) Domestic 1406 798 56.8
32 Toyoda et al. 2012 Kyusyu and Okinawa Rural 2004-2007 Cross-sectional Residents General population Adults NOT random sampling 1728 M/F 57.8 [30-89] NA Serum JHM-CAP, KyowaMedex Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan Domestic 1540 923 59.9
33 Tamura et al. 2012 Aichi Urban 2008-2010 Cross-sectional within a cohort study Participants of a cohort study General population Adults NOT random sampling 5167 M/F [35-69] NA Urine Rapiran (Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) Domestic 5167 1881 36.4
34 Shimoyama et al. 2012 Hirosaki Urban 2005 Cross-sectional Healthy adults attending a health screening program General population Adult NOT random sampling 1048 M/F [25-85] NA Serum E-plate (Eiken Chemical, Tokyo, Japan) Domestic 1048 638 60.9
35 Urita et al. 2013 Aomori Rural 1999-2004 Cross-sectional Children attending a clinic Clinic- or Hospital-based Children NOT random sampling 838 M/F 12.4 [1-18] NA Serum NA NA 828 101 12.1
36 Ueda et al. 2014 Hokkaido, Tokyo and 9 other prefectures Urban/rural 1997-2013 Cross-sectional Individuals attending a health screening program Community Adult NOT random sampling 14716 M/F NA [20- ] NA Serum/urine/stool E-plate Eiken H.pylori antibody Domestic 14716 5879 39.9
37 Hirayama et al. 2014 Hokkaido, Tohoku, Kanto, Chubu, Kinki, Chugoku, Kyushu Urban/rural 2008 Cross-sectional Employees of a large company Community Adult NOT random sampling 21144 M/F NA [35-79] NA Serum E-plate Eiken Chemical Co.Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) Domestic 21144 5822 27.5
38 Okuda et al. 2014 Sasayama Rural 2010-2011 Cross-sectional Participants of a population-based survey General population Children NOT random sampling 1299 1909 M/F NA [0-8] NA [0-11] 53%
44%
Stool TestMate Pylori Antigen EIA (Wakamoto Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd) Domestic 688
835
13
15
1.9
1.8
39 Shimoyama et al. 2014 Hirosaki Urban 2012 Cross-sectional Healthy adults attending a health survey General population Adult NOT random sampling 810 M/F [40-80] NA SerumStool E-plate (Eiken Chemical Co.jLtd, Tokyo, Japan; Testmate EIA (Wakamoto Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd, Kyowa Medex) Domestic 505 224 44.4
40 Watanabe et al. 2015 Aichi Urban 2005-2013 Cross-sectional All first-visit outpatients at Aichi Cancer Center Clinic- or Hospital-based Adult NOT random sampling 4698 M/F 60.5 [20-79] NA Serum E-plate Eiken H.pylori antibody Domestic 4285 1607 37.5
41 Kamada et al. 2015 Hiroshima and Kawasaki NA 1975-19781991-19942010-2013 Cross-sectional Patients undergoing endoscopy for dyspepsia or gastric cancer screening Clinic- or Hospital-based Adult NOT random sampling 1381 M/F [18-70+] NA Biopsy specimens Giemsa or Gimenez staining NA 289
787
305
216
417
107
74.7
53.0
35.1
42 Akamatsu et al. 2015 Nagano Rural 2007-2013 Cross-sectional High school students General population Children NOT random sampling 3251 M/F [16-17] 99.6% Serum RAPIRAN, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co, Tokyo, Japan Domestic 3251 136 4.2
43 Nakayama et al. 2016 Nagano Urban/rural 2011-2013 Cross-sectional Junior high school students General population Children NOT random sampling 681 M/F NA [12-15] 79% Serum E-plate (Eiken Chemicals, Tokyo, Japan) Domestic 454 14 3.1
44 Charvat, 2016 JPHC Cohort II 6 Public Health Center areas (Ibaraki, Niigata, Kochi, Nagasaki, Okinawa, Osaka) Urban/rural 1993-1994 Cohort study Residents in various areas General population Adult Random sampling 21682 M/F [30-79] NA Serum E-plate (Eiken Chemicals, Tokyo, Japan) Domestic 21682 14809 68.3
Abbreviation: NA, not available.
Information on JPHC next cohort (Study ID=45) is unpublished, details available upon request.