There is a dataframe with more than 50,000 diamonds available in the ggplot2 package. We wnat to analyze this data to explain the factors determining the price of a diamond.

library(tidyverse)
## Warning: package 'tidyverse' was built under R version 3.3.2
## Loading tidyverse: ggplot2
## Loading tidyverse: tibble
## Loading tidyverse: tidyr
## Loading tidyverse: readr
## Loading tidyverse: purrr
## Loading tidyverse: dplyr
## Warning: package 'ggplot2' was built under R version 3.3.2
## Warning: package 'tidyr' was built under R version 3.3.2
## Conflicts with tidy packages ----------------------------------------------
## filter(): dplyr, stats
## lag():    dplyr, stats

Examine the diamonds dataset.

str(diamonds)
## Classes 'tbl_df', 'tbl' and 'data.frame':    53940 obs. of  10 variables:
##  $ carat  : num  0.23 0.21 0.23 0.29 0.31 0.24 0.24 0.26 0.22 0.23 ...
##  $ cut    : Ord.factor w/ 5 levels "Fair"<"Good"<..: 5 4 2 4 2 3 3 3 1 3 ...
##  $ color  : Ord.factor w/ 7 levels "D"<"E"<"F"<"G"<..: 2 2 2 6 7 7 6 5 2 5 ...
##  $ clarity: Ord.factor w/ 8 levels "I1"<"SI2"<"SI1"<..: 2 3 5 4 2 6 7 3 4 5 ...
##  $ depth  : num  61.5 59.8 56.9 62.4 63.3 62.8 62.3 61.9 65.1 59.4 ...
##  $ table  : num  55 61 65 58 58 57 57 55 61 61 ...
##  $ price  : int  326 326 327 334 335 336 336 337 337 338 ...
##  $ x      : num  3.95 3.89 4.05 4.2 4.34 3.94 3.95 4.07 3.87 4 ...
##  $ y      : num  3.98 3.84 4.07 4.23 4.35 3.96 3.98 4.11 3.78 4.05 ...
##  $ z      : num  2.43 2.31 2.31 2.63 2.75 2.48 2.47 2.53 2.49 2.39 ...
summary(diamonds)
##      carat               cut        color        clarity     
##  Min.   :0.2000   Fair     : 1610   D: 6775   SI1    :13065  
##  1st Qu.:0.4000   Good     : 4906   E: 9797   VS2    :12258  
##  Median :0.7000   Very Good:12082   F: 9542   SI2    : 9194  
##  Mean   :0.7979   Premium  :13791   G:11292   VS1    : 8171  
##  3rd Qu.:1.0400   Ideal    :21551   H: 8304   VVS2   : 5066  
##  Max.   :5.0100                     I: 5422   VVS1   : 3655  
##                                     J: 2808   (Other): 2531  
##      depth           table           price             x         
##  Min.   :43.00   Min.   :43.00   Min.   :  326   Min.   : 0.000  
##  1st Qu.:61.00   1st Qu.:56.00   1st Qu.:  950   1st Qu.: 4.710  
##  Median :61.80   Median :57.00   Median : 2401   Median : 5.700  
##  Mean   :61.75   Mean   :57.46   Mean   : 3933   Mean   : 5.731  
##  3rd Qu.:62.50   3rd Qu.:59.00   3rd Qu.: 5324   3rd Qu.: 6.540  
##  Max.   :79.00   Max.   :95.00   Max.   :18823   Max.   :10.740  
##                                                                  
##        y                z         
##  Min.   : 0.000   Min.   : 0.000  
##  1st Qu.: 4.720   1st Qu.: 2.910  
##  Median : 5.710   Median : 3.530  
##  Mean   : 5.735   Mean   : 3.539  
##  3rd Qu.: 6.540   3rd Qu.: 4.040  
##  Max.   :58.900   Max.   :31.800  
## 

There are a few bad values in the variables, x, y and z. Eliminate these and make a cleaned copy of diamonds as d.

d = diamonds[diamonds$x > 0 &
             diamonds$y > 0 &
             diamonds$z > 0,]
str(d)
## Classes 'tbl_df', 'tbl' and 'data.frame':    53920 obs. of  10 variables:
##  $ carat  : num  0.23 0.21 0.23 0.29 0.31 0.24 0.24 0.26 0.22 0.23 ...
##  $ cut    : Ord.factor w/ 5 levels "Fair"<"Good"<..: 5 4 2 4 2 3 3 3 1 3 ...
##  $ color  : Ord.factor w/ 7 levels "D"<"E"<"F"<"G"<..: 2 2 2 6 7 7 6 5 2 5 ...
##  $ clarity: Ord.factor w/ 8 levels "I1"<"SI2"<"SI1"<..: 2 3 5 4 2 6 7 3 4 5 ...
##  $ depth  : num  61.5 59.8 56.9 62.4 63.3 62.8 62.3 61.9 65.1 59.4 ...
##  $ table  : num  55 61 65 58 58 57 57 55 61 61 ...
##  $ price  : int  326 326 327 334 335 336 336 337 337 338 ...
##  $ x      : num  3.95 3.89 4.05 4.2 4.34 3.94 3.95 4.07 3.87 4 ...
##  $ y      : num  3.98 3.84 4.07 4.23 4.35 3.96 3.98 4.11 3.78 4.05 ...
##  $ z      : num  2.43 2.31 2.31 2.63 2.75 2.48 2.47 2.53 2.49 2.39 ...

We lost only 20 observations in cleaning the data.

Intuitively, all other things being the same, a heavier diamond is probably worth more. Let’s look a t a scatterplot to see how carat explains price.

g1 = ggplot(data=d,aes(x=carat,y=price))
g2 = g1 + geom_point()
g2

We do see the expected positive relationship, but we notice other things as well. There is vertical striping in the data, and the overplotting obscures the detail. The gap below 2 carats is clear. We can see this more clearly by focusing on a narrow band around 2.

g1 = ggplot(data=d[d$carat >1.89 & d$carat < 2.11,],aes(x=carat,y=price))
g2 = g1 + geom_point()
g2