# Robust Summaries & Rank tests

Lucas Schiffer
March 07, 2016

Data Analysis for the Life Sciences

### Topics

• Introduction
• Median
• Median Absolute Deviation
• Spearman Correlation
• Symmetry of Log Ratios
• Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test

### Introduction

Liquid Scintillation Counter https://tinyurl.com/jerufaq

FTIR Spectrometer https://tinyurl.com/hdrzs6x

### Introduction

Mean =  1.11
SD = 10.03
Median = 0.17

• Expensive Devices Make Mistakes
• Expert Researchers Make Mistakes
• Systematic Errors Occur Often
• Random Errors Occur Often
• Equipment Cost â‰  Error Rate

### Median

• Robust to Outliers
• For Ordered Data, Given by the Middle Term
• Must Average Two Terms Where n of Terms is Even
• The Smallest Value of i that Satisfies the Inequality

$\sum_{i=1}^{j} f_i â‰¥ \frac{n+1}{2}$

### Median

Mean =  1.11
SD = 10.03
Median = 0.17


Mean =  0.11
SD = 0.9
Median = 0.11


### Median Absolute Deviation

• Robust version of standard deviation
• Compute the Difference Between Each Point and the Median
• Then Take the Median of Their Absolute Values

$\operatorname{MAD} = \operatorname{median}_{i}\left(\ \left| X_{i} - \operatorname{median}_{j} (X_{j}) \right|\ \right), \$

### Median Absolute Deviation

SD = 10.03


MAD = 0.89


### Spearman Correlation

• Also Known as Spearman's Rho
• Raw Values Are Standardized and Ranked
• Ranked Values Range from 0 to 1
• Robust Because Outliers Rank Lower

$r_s = \rho_{\operatorname{rg}_X,\operatorname{rg}_Y} = \frac {\operatorname{cov}(\operatorname{rg}_X,\operatorname{rg}_Y)} { \sigma_{\operatorname{rg}_X} \sigma_{\operatorname{rg}_Y} }$

### Symmetry of Log Ratios

• Properties of Logarithms Yields Symetric Ratios
• Allows for Normalization of Exponential Data
• Data Becomes Linear, More Amenable to Analysis
• Robust Statistics for Exponential Data

$\log(x/y)=\log(x)-\log(y)=-(\log(y)-\log(x))=\log(y/x)$

### Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test

• Also Known as the Mann-Whitney Test
• Just as Mean and Standard Deviation are Suseptible to Outliers, so too is the T-Test
• In Essence Data are Combined, Ranked, Stratified into Groups, and Finally Given an Average Rank
• Provides a Non-Parametric Method for Hypothesis Testing

### Wilcoxon Rank Sum Test

t-test pval: 0.04439948